3,000 to 1,200 years ago
Early in the Woodland period life went on with little change from the Late Archaic. Subsistence focusedon hunting, fishing, and gathering of plants and shellfish. By about 400 BC, villages became more sedentary. Trade flourished, horticulture became more common, and populations again grew. Shellmiddens from this period can be very deep, suggesting either very longterm occupation, or repeated occupation of the same site, ususally a cluster of five or ten houses. Technology also developed, including different ways of making pottery,such as using sand or shell instead of Spanish moss for temper.
Decorations on the pottery include stamped or incised patterns. Pipes,ornaments, and other personal items are more common now. About the year 600, a new tool appeared which changed much of life: the bow and arrow. Hunting small game became much easier. At the same time, growing plants for food also grew in popularity.
By about the year 1000, maize (corn),beans, and squash were important parts of the diet along with smallgame and seafood. The abundant foods allowed for more permanent settlements, but perhaps because of this, and the use of the bow andarrow in war, in some areas villages begin to build palisades around the houses for protection. This may have been related to growing competition with other villages for resources in overlapping territory. Parris Island was frequently occupied during the Woodland period.